This is a North Indian Percussion Instrument consist of two parts, Left Drum/Bayan and Right Drum/Tabla. This instrument is used in Indian Classical Music to show the rhythm or Laya. Instead of using it as an accompanying instrument, it is also used as a solo instrument. This instrument falls in the Avnadh Vadya/Percussion Instrument group of instruments. It is the most popular instrument of the present time.
In ancient records, it is that gayan/vocal, vadan/percussion, nritya/dance is called Music. When we execute a performance by applying specific musical notes and tempo it will be considered as Music/Sangeet.
The unit which measures time in music is called Taal/rhythm. It can be of a variety of beats and divisions which suits different styles of singing. In ancient records, it is said that ‘Ta’ is taken from the dance of Lord Shiva “Tandava” and the letter ‘l’ is taken from the dance of Goddess Parvati’s Dance “Lasya”.
The Unit which measures Taal is Called Matra. For Example, Dadra Taal has 6 Beats by which we can identify the taal length. It is similar as we use meter, gaj, kilometer, litre, etc.. to measure different quantities.
The sections used to show divisions of a taal are called Vibhag. It can be of a different number of beats. For example, Teen Taal has 4 Divisions of 4 beats each, Dadra has 2 divisions of 3 beats each, etc. For Example, let us consider Dadra Taal which has two divisions of 3 Beats each.
Every object has its own rhythm in this universe. According to scholars, the constant speed of time in music is called Laya. There can be many ways to describe Laya, but the scholars have divided the Laya/Tempo into three main divisions - Vilambit Laya, Madhya Laya and Drut Laya.
When we play a taal’s theka in a different style with some changes in it’s root composition is called prakar or kism. We make changes in the root composition of the taal but nature and spirit persist the same as the main theme.
It is a type of paran, which the performer or dancer performs at the beginning. It can be from one taal cycle to many taal cycles as per required. This is a composition which has tihai. Many players play the theka in different layas like ekgun, dugun, tigun and chaugun and ends it with a Tihai in start and consider it as Uthaan. One form can also be that a performer can use a specific group of bols from a jati and use some tihais of different beats and styles.
It is a group of meaningful bols that can be improvise by maintaining the basic form, divisions and structure of the Composition. It is a systematic composition, according to the scriptures, while improvising a kayda it is necessary to use the maintain jati of the main theme kayda in paltas. The improvisation should be in the same jati, but in the present times, performes use different jatis while improvising the kayda to show a glimpse of excitement. For improvisation we can only use the same bols used in Kayda. We can end a kayda with a tihai or a chakardar tihai. Tinakina, Dhinagina, Tinkin, Dhingin are used in end of the Kaydas by which we can identify the composition type.
A composition that can be improvised and can be played in athhgun laya or very high tempo, can be mentioned as Rela. It looks like a kayda but it is meant to be played in very high/fast tempo. At the end of the composition kittak, ghidnag, kidnak bolas can be used.
It literally means circular or rotating. In chakardar if we play a Tukda having a tihai three times and it falls on sum it is called Chakardar. Its size is larger than tihai. It can be of 2 cycles to 5 cycles.
This is also the same structure as of Chakardar, but it has some special character sticks. At the time of the first cycle of this chakardar, the first 'Dha' of the tihai falls on sum, then in the second sycle the second ‘Dha’ of the tihai falls on sum, and in third cycle of the chakardar the last ‘dha’ falls on sum.
This has similar structure as of Farmaishi Chakardar, but it has some special character sticks as it uses three Dha in each part of it’s tihai- Titkata Gadigena Dha Dha Dha, Titkata Gadigena Dha Dha Dha, Titkata Gadigena Dha Dha Dha. At the time of the first cycle of the chakardar, the first 'Dha' of the first part of the tihai falls on sum, then in the second cycle the second ‘Dha’ of the second part of the tihai falls on sum, and in third cycle of the chakardar the last ‘dha’ falls on sum.
This is a composition consist of soft phrases that can not be improvised. In some cases the principle of khali-bhari is used, it can not improvised but its duplicates can be made called Joda. Gat can use Tihai or can be of without Tihai. Both the Kinar and Syahi are used in this composition. Do-moohi, Charbagh, Dupalli, Tipali, Chaupalli, etc. are also gat varities.
It is adopted from Pakhawaj. We can use strong and energetic phrases to compose a paran. These syllables are of tabla, but their expressions are very energetic and masculine like pakhawaj. It’s size can be of 2 to 3 cycles and adjoined with Tihai.
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